Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, designs and symbols, names, and images used in commerce. IP is divided into two categories: industrial property, which includes patents for inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, and geographical indications; and copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, and architectural designs, and computer programs.
IP is protected in law by, for example, patents, copyright, and trademarks, which enable people to earn recognition or financial benefit from what they invent or create. In some countries, IP is also protected by sui generis systems, which provide specific protection for plant breeders’ rights or for layout designs (topographies) of integrated circuits.
While the term “intellectual property” suggests a single concept, it refers to a number of separate and distinct rights.
A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which is a product or a process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. To get a patent, applicants must file a patent application with the relevant national authority. The scope of the patent protection and the term of the exclusive right vary from country to country. In most jurisdictions, a patent owner has the right to prevent others from making, using, selling or importing the patented invention without permission.
A trademark is a sign that distinguishes the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises. Trademarks can be words, logos, shapes, colors, or a combination of these. They are used to identify the source of goods or services and can distinguish them from those of other businesses. To get protection for a trademark, it must be registered with the relevant national authority. Business lawyers at the https://brazeauseller.com/ site emphasize that businesses should take the necessary legal precautions when obtaining, transferring, licensing, and protecting trademarks and other relevant rights. In most countries, the owner of a registered trademark has the exclusive right to use it in relation to the goods or services for which it is registered.
An industrial design is the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of an article. A design may consist of three-dimensional features, such as the shape or surface of an article, or two-dimensional features, such as patterns, lines, or color. For businesses to protect it, a design must be new and have individual character. In many countries, industrial designs are registered with the relevant national authority. The owner of a registered design has the exclusive right to use it and to prevent others from using it without permission.
A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on certain products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that place of origin. GIs are used to identify wines, cheeses, hams, sausages and other foodstuffs, as well as handicrafts and certain industrial products.
The use of a GI may be regulated by law. In some countries, it is compulsory to use a GI if the product concerned corresponds to the definition in the relevant legislation. In other countries, the use of a GI is voluntary but there are legal consequences if it is misused.
There are three types of GIs:
1. Protected designations of origin (PDOs): these refer to products with specific geographical origins and qualities or reputations that are due to those origins. An example of a PDO is Champagne, which can only be produced in the Champagne region of France.
2. Protected geographical indications (PGIs): these refer to products with specific geographical origins and qualities or reputations that are due to those origins. An example of a PGI is Parma ham, which can only be produced in the Parma region of Italy.
3. Traditional specialties guaranteed (TSGs): these refer to products that have a specific traditional character, even if they do not come from a particular geographical area. An example of a TSG is feta cheese, which can be produced in various parts of Greece.
Intellectual property law is constantly evolving as technology changes and new challenges arise. It is important to consult with an experienced attorney if you have questions about your rights or if you are accused of infringing someone else’s intellectual property.